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History of Ubuntu Development ( 2004-2018)

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History of creation  Mark Shuttleworth the creator of Ubuntu was born in 1973 in one of the districts of South Africa. While studying in...

History of creation

 Mark Shuttleworth the creator of Ubuntu was born in 1973 in one of the districts of South Africa. While studying in college, the young man was enthusiastic about computers and he was also a member of the Open Source community, where he worked on developing projects for GNU and Linux, but this did not stop him from obtaining his doctorate in economics after college.


   After graduation, Shuttleworth realizes the potential of an actively developing Internet web and together with partners, establishes Thawte, which was a company that deals with the issuance of safety certificates. Mark diligently developed the company for several years and eventually made it a direct competitor to Verisign. In 1999, Thawte was acquired by Verisgn for several hundred million dollars, which provided Mark with a long and carefree life in abundance, and he decides to fulfill his childhood dream-to fly into space.
   Paying a $20 million membership fee, Mark went to Russia to participate in a scientific space program. During that year, he was busy making preparations, which included the study of Russian language, physical exercises and astronaut tests on the educational models of space vehicles. As a result, Mark spent 2 days aboard the Russian Soyuz TM-34 spacecraft  and 8 days on ISS (International Space Station). In the spring of 2002, he returned to earth.

   Mark was also busy creating and developing his fund, he got engaged in investing and developing innovative projects in the field of education and science. To finance the new project and pay salaries to key employees, Shuttleword needed to create a company. Mark invites a number of familiar Debian developers to start the work on a new operating system project, which was later known as Ubuntu.

   The name comes from the South African word "ubuntu" (which means humanity), this was the ideology of the project. The advantages are free distribution and full open source of the software, which has allowed many developers to write applications for 14 years, and create an ideal ecosystem for the functioning of servers and development of software for different platforms.

Now let's move on to how the operating system has changed, and what innovations/features have been implemented by developers in each of the releases since 2004.

Ubuntu 4.10 Warty Warthog (Year 2004)

   The first version of the Ubuntu OS was released in the fall of 2004, codenamed Warty Warthog ("The Warthog").The first released version number 4.10  was not chosen by chance, the first number before the dot indicates the year the operating system was release, and its second month. This was later used by future developers to differentiate each of the of the releases, every six months.

   Initially, the system was an add-in for Debian, with a simpler user interface device oriented for home use. However, this did not stop the project from getting recognition from the development community.Also, the company arranged a program, in which anyone who fill out for an application could receive an installation disc with the system absolutely free.

The distribution package included: OpenOffice.org 1.1 office suite, Mozilla Firefox 0.9 browser, GIMP 2.0 graphical editor, GNOME 2.8 user interface, PHP 4.3, Python 2.3, MySQL 4.0, XFree86 4.3 and Gaim 1.0.
Official support for Ubuntu 4.10 was terminated by the developers in April 2006.

Ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog (April 8, 2005)

   Six months later, on April 8, 2005, the company releases a new release of OS Ubuntu 5.04 by Hoary Hedgehog (Russian Sedoy Hedgehog). It included a lot of innovations relating to the algorithms of the operating system.

   The following applications have been updated from the pre-installed programs package: Gaim 1.1, GIMP 2.2, GNOME 2.10, Mozilla Firefox 1.0, Python 2.4, X.Org 6.8. Also, the Linux kernel was upgraded to version 2.6.11. Support was discontinued on October 31, 2006.

Ubuntu 5.10 Breezy Hadgehog (October 13, 2005)

   The third release of the Ubuntu distribution, codenamed Breezy Hadgehog, was released on October 13, 2005. In it, the developers added the first version of the graphical loader Usplash, a utility for managing the software installed on the computer, a customizer for the alacarte menu, the ability to easily change the language, the utility for managing the file system and logical volumes, full support for HP printers and MFPs, also integrated into Launchpad for convenient start of programs. The release worked on the Linux 2.6.12 kernel, GNOME 2.12 and X.Org 6.8. Support was discontinued on April 13, 2007.

Ubuntu 6.06 LTS Dapper Drake (June 2006)

   The release of the fourth version of Ubuntu Dapper Drake distribution (smartest drake) was originally scheduled for April 2006, as was the case with previous versions, but Mark Shuttleword, decided to push the release of the new version of the distribution kit to the beginning of June. It was the first distribution in the Ubuntu family, which had long-term support (three years for home computers and five years for servers), instead of one and a half years, as with previous releases. since then LTS (Long Time Support) has been extended to every two years.

   The notable software updates in this release are: Ubiquity graphical installer, Network Manager for setting up easy Internet access,new  Humanlooks interface style, and a graphical package installer * .deb. Also, since the 6.06 LTS release, the developers implemented the option of installing the distribution on USB drives.

   Further in the article we will consider exclusively LTS versions, since they have the most significant differences from the annual paired releases.

Ubuntu 8.04 LTS Hardy Heron (April 24, 2008)

   This is the second among LTS-versions which -was released on April 24, 2008.  Among all features/ innovations of the ubuntu 8.04, was the Wubi installer on LiveCD. This allows PC users to easily install Ubuntu on their computer without leaving the main Windows OS. In design, the operating system interface has not changed in comparison with previous releases.

   Externally, the operating system interface has not changed in comparison with previous releases, obviously for the reason that developers and designers came to a common opinion about the standard look of the distribution at that time.

   In the list of preinstalled programs, Transmission client was added, and Vinarge was used to replaced VNC client (remote access client and computer client). PulseAudio now controls system sounds playback. In version 8.10 guest mode has been added, support for 3G networks has been improved and the system can be installed on a USB flash drive.

Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx (April 29, 2010)

   The twelfth and most loved by users among all releases of Ubuntu was released on April 29, 2010. In this version, the developers maintained the established standard in the arrangement of interface elements of system, but differentiated it with a proprietary color scheme. Some users noted the similarity of the new graphical theme with OS X.

   Speaking about the fact that 10.04 is the most favorite release by users, in comparison with previous ones it was the most stable, and having the minimum number of issues/problems. Although, some minor users only reported about some issues with the repositories located on disks.

   Therefore, Lucid Lynx was suitable for everyday home and production use, more than other versions.In addition, users who installed Ubuntu on their computer received 5 GB of free space in the cloud storage of Ubuntu One.

   In the following updates to Ubuntu 10, developers from Canonical implemented mostly little noticeable, but important software and interface improvements. Support for Ubuntu 10.04 was discontinued in April 2013.

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin(April 26, 2012)

   April 26, 2012 saw the release of the long-awaited release of Ubuntu 12.04 called Precise Pangolin (Pedantic Pangolin). The update brought a lot of changes to the system, concerning both software and visual improvements. Also, developers increased the period of support for all upcoming  distributions from three years to five in order to bring to the platform more new home users and corporate customers.

   In terms of changes, the visual series of the system was improved, a new version of Unity 5 was included, which corrected a lot of mistakes and bugs from last year's release, and also implemented function like HUD (Head-Up Display), with which the user could press the Alt key to search line and quickly find installed programs.

   The interface and the settings of the system parameters was completely redesigned, and also new features was introduced like- multi-monitor mode settings, history management option for the computer and the Landscape service. A feature of improved work with multiple monitors was that the Unity docking panel could simultaneously work on several displays, thereby simplifying access for users to installed applications.

   In place of the standard audio player, Rhythmbox was returned instead of Banshee, which appeared in last year's 11.04. This step was taken most likely in order to provide a more comfortable transition to the new version of the system users 10.04 LTS. Support for Ubuntu 12.04 was discontinued in April 26, 2017.

Ubuntu Touch For Mobile Devices

 

   Ubuntu Touch (also known as Ubuntu Phone ) is a mobile version of the Ubuntu operating system that was originally developed by Canonical Ltd. and is now being developed by the UBports community. It is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.

   The Ubuntu Touch project was started in 2011. Mark Shuttleworth announced on 31 October 2011 that by Ubuntu 14.04 , the goal was that Ubuntu would support smartphones, tablets, smart TVs and other smart screens (such as car head units and smartwatches),  but to date has only been supported by vendors on a few smartphones, one tablet and a number of third-party devices which hobbyists have ported the operating system to. The initial goal set by Shuttleworth for Ubuntu was to reach full convergence (same platform and libraries on all devices). The Ubuntu platform for phones was unveiled on 2 January 2013. The Ubuntu Touch Developer Preview was released on 21 February 2013.


   Moving away from the idea of ​​creating their own alternative flagship class of devices, Canonical rushed into cooperation with third-party vendors in order to somehow bring their project to a wider audience. After agreeing with manufacturers, mainly budget devices BQ and Meizu, Canonical brings to the mass market the first devices working on Ubuntu Touch out of the box.

   The first device c preinstalled Ubuntu Touch was BQ Aquaris E4.5 Ubuntu Edition . In March 2015, Meizu released the second device on the Ubuntu platform - Meizu MX4. At the MWC exhibition in 2016, BQ company introduced one of the first tablets, which worked on Ubuntu Touch by default,

   Mark Shuttleworth announced that Canonical Ltd. would terminate support for the project due to lack of market interest on 5 April 2017[7][8] and it was then adopted by the UBports as a community project. The UBports project was seeded by Marius Gripsgard in 2015 and the programming source code for the project was transferred to the UBports Foundation where it now resides. UBports' mission is to support the collaborative development of Ubuntu Touch and to promote the widespread use of Ubuntu Touch.

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Trusty Tahr(April 17, 2014)

   The twentieth of all Ubuntu distributions and the fifth releases with long-term support (LTS), released on April 17, 2014. There were many innovations that affect the work with touchscreens. in this release, developers have worked hard at optimizing the interface for working on x86-tablets.

   There is now support for high-resolution displays (FullHD and above), work with ARM64 and PowerPC64 architectures, Linux kernel 3.13 with the new Deadline I / O scheduler instead of the previously used CFQ, an updated set of Python 3.4 libraries, and a new Oxide web engine applications.

 Now when installing the distribution kit on the computer, the system itself searches for the required drivers for the operation of all devices on the computer on the Internet and automatically installs them. Thus, the developers managed to make the system even friendlier to users. OS support will end on April 17, 2019.

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Xerial Xerus(April 21, 2016)

   The sixth LTS version was released on April 21, 2016, the developers introduced a new version of the Unity 7.4 shell, Linux 4.4 kernel, Xorg 1.18.3 graphics server and Mesa 11.2.0 graphics server, default application store of Ubuntu Software Center was also replaced by GNOME Software, some programs was removed from the Operating System like: Brasero discs recording tool and Empathy chatting application.

   Starting with this version, the distribution has received support for a new format of Snap packages, originally intended for servers, cloud computing systems and mobile devices. Thus, the developers took another step towards the multi-profile of their system. Visually, the interface of the system has not undergone any major changes, except that the Unity sidebar has the ability to adjust its location.

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Bionic Beaver (Latest Version)

   Ubuntu 18.04 LTS is the release with almost the most changes. First of all, users of Ubuntu 16.04 was shocked with the news that Canonical, starting with version 18.04, decided to completely abandon the support of the Unity graphical environment in favor of the Gnome shell.

   The side panel, which for so many years has become a visiting card of the system, has been able to be place left, right and bottom. The set of preinstalled programs did not change, but the application settings were completely reworked, now it is even more convenient, thanks to the presence of an internal search.

   The developers decided to abandon the banal bubbles with the notifications that occupied the right side of the screen. From now on, notifications are displayed in the center, and the point next to the date notifies the user about the presence of unread reminders.

   After multiple experiments with the choice of a window server, as a default, the developers decided to stop at Xorg. This decision is due to the fact that Xorg works much more stable, previously used by Wayland, and this is especially noticeable when working with open Nvidia drivers. But Ubuntu decided not to completely abandon Wayland, and for those users who work with this system is fundamentally important, left the possibility to switch to it. To do this, when you log in, you need to click on the wheel settings and select mode of work in Wayland.

   Among other things, it became possible to install an operating system, which includes only the browser and other set of simple utilities for the system, without addition software in the form of an office suite, audio player and other. Canonical also refused to develop a 32-bit version of its system, from now on to download and install the latest version of the OS from the official site of Ubuntu, only 64-bit is available.

Conclusion

   So what is Ubuntu? It is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian. Ubuntu is offered in three official editions: Ubuntu Desktop for personal computers, Ubuntu Server for servers and the cloud, and Ubuntu Core for Internet of things devices and robots. New releases of Ubuntu occur every six months, while long-term support (LTS) releases occur every two years.

Ubuntu is a safe, modern and free operating system with its unique ideology, and great prospects for development in the future.

Thank you for reading!

References and sources


Official Ubuntu Website
Download Ubuntu Desktop
Techotopia
Ubuntu (operating system) - Wikipedia

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History of Ubuntu Development ( 2004-2018)
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